Ursache scheint klar zu sein: seit etwa zwei Jahrzehnten beginnen
Mädchen aufgrund der gezielten Zigarettenwerbung
bereits vor der Pubertät zu rauchen und haben daher noch
kleine Kinder, wenn ihr weit fortgeschrittener Lungenkrebs entdeckt
wird. Sie sterben dann innerhalb kurzer Zeit.
med. Jochen Kubitschek
mehr Frauen an Lungenkrebs sterben als an Brustkrebs und Eierstockkrebs
zusammengenommen, wird in die Erforschung dieses Leidens vergleichsweise
wenig Geld investiert. Der Anteil an den Krebstodesfällen
liegt bei 22%, während auf Brustkrebs nur 8% der Todesfälle
entfallen. Während für die Erforschung des Brustkrebs
beispielsweise in Großbritannien 18% der Forschungsmittel
ausgegeben werden, liegt dieser Anteil beim Lungenkrebs lediglich
bei 3%. Diese erstaunliche Diskrepanz wird von den Experten mit
der Tatsache erklärt, dass sich die Öffentlichkeit der
Tatsache bewusst ist, dass die meisten Lungenkrebs-Patienten selbst
schuld an ihrem Leiden sind.
heute noch sind die Heilungsaussichten bei Lungenkrebs sehr schlecht.
Nur 6% der Lungenkrebs-Patienten überleben fünf Jahre,
während es bei Brustkrebs etwa 76% sind. Auffällig ist,
dass das Lungenkrebsrisiko bei Frauen - bei gleich hohem Zigarettenkonsum
- rund doppelt so hoch ist wie bei Männern. Die erkrankten
Frauen sterben auch schneller als die Männer, da ihr Krebs
meist in einem späteren Stadium entdeckt wird. Dies führen
Krebsspezialisten auf die Tatsache zurück, dass Frauen eher
Zigaretten mit niedrigem Teergehalt rauchen. Diese oft speziell
für Frauen entwickelten Zigaretten verführen zu einem
unterschiedlichen Rauchverhalten. Die Frauen inhalieren den Rauch
tiefer und schädigen daher andere Teile der Bronchien und
des Lungengewebes. Bei den Männern werden die Tumore aufgrund
häufiger Bronchitiserkrankungen früher entdeckt und
lassen sich daher besser behandeln.
Lung cancer deaths surging among young female smokers
Tobacco advertising directed at girls blamed for alarming rise
of disease thats now killing women smokers in their 30s
in their mid-30s are now developing fatal lung cancer as a result
of starting to smoke in their early teens, according to reports
from doctors across the UK.
cancer is perceived as an illness of the middle-aged or elderly
but doctors throughout the country are seeing increasing numbers
of women in their 30s or early 40s dying from the disease.
Jesme Baird, director of patient care at the Roy Castle Lung Cancer
Foundation, said: A very worrying trend appears to be emerging.
What were hearing from lung cancer consultants across the UK
is that the incidence of lung cancer among younger women has been
on the increase over the last couple of years. This is a devastating
disease and the impact that this must be having on these women,
the majority of whom will have young families, is unimaginable.
Elaine Rankin, who holds a Cancer Research UK chair of cancer
medicine and is a consultant at Ninewells Hospital in Dundee,
is now treating women in their mid-30s. She says the type of lung
cancer killing these women is slightly different from the illness
that targets older men.
see women from their mid-30s onwards. This is an increasing phenomenon.
These women have a slightly different disease. Older men with
lung cancer often have a history of bronchitis and their cancer
comes to light due to repeated chest infections.
the younger women, we are seeing the disease behaving slightly
differently. It tends to be more advanced when it comes to light.
That, we think, has something to do with the type of cigarettes
women are smoking. More women smoke low-tar cigarettes. Women
tend to be inhaling deeply smaller particles which travel further
in the lungs, towards the ribs, and that is where they start causing
women die from lung cancer than breast cancer and ovarian cancer
combined. Lung cancer survival rates are extremely low. Only 6.4%
of women survive five years compared to 77.5% of women with breast
research showed that a woman who smokes the same number of cigarettes
as a man is twice as likely to develop lung cancer. The study
from Sloan-Kettering Cancer Centre in New York suggested that
the key to the double tumour risk lies in men having a greater
ability to detoxify toxins and the presence of the female hormone
oestrogen which is known to help cancers.
the most recent national statistics on lung cancer are only available
from 1999, the increase in younger women dying from the disease
remains anecdotal, but Professor Ray Donnelly, founder and president
of the Roy Castle Lung Cancer Foundation, is not surprised by
what the charity is hearing from doctors. He says this is due
to women starting smoking at the age of 10 or 11.
is a logical consequence of girls starting to smoke at a much
younger age. If we have girls starting to smoke at the age of
10 to 12 it is not surprising that they develop lung cancer by
have seen patients in their 30s with lung cancer. My guess is
this is happening because the women coming through started smoking
at 10, 11 or 12.
the 50s and 60s women would start smoking in their 20s or 30s
and lung cancer would come through in their 50s or 60s.
Stephen Spiro, of the British Lung Foundation and University College
London Hospitals NHS Trust, has treated a 33-year-old woman with
lung cancer, and regularly sees women dying from the disease in
their 40s. He believes advertising targeted at adolescent girls
has played a part.
recent study by the Centre for Tobacco Control Research at Strathclyde
University, and the Department of Community Health Sciences at
Edinburgh University, said that youth style magazines contribute
to high levels of smoking among young women. It found that the
casual promotion of smoking in fashion shoots and by personalities
carries most influence.
Morris marketed Virginia Slims at women with slogans such as Youve
come a long way, Baby, and Its a womans thing. Critics also claim
the brand hinted at the fact that smoking helps women to lose
are now seeing cancers more frequently in younger women than we
used to and this is going to continue until they reduce their
problem is that the advertising is directed at girls, with brands
such as Virginia Slims. We have got to target teenagers who smoke.
They are the next generation of cancer victims in their 30s, Spiro
Tariq Sethi, a British Lung Foundation chair and consultant at
Edinburgh Royal Infirmary, added: There was very aggressive marketing
by cigarette manufacturers targeting women.
was seen by women as something their favourite celebrities did
and as a way of keeping their weight down. There is no doubt that
smoking does keep your weight down. Teenage girls also think smoking
gives them an air of sophistication.
are now seeing much younger women coming through with lung cancer
for reasons we dont understand. Lung cancer was seen as an old
persons disease but now it is not uncommon for us to see women
in their early 40s.
cancer attracts a fraction of the funding awarded to other forms
of the disease. Campaigners believe this is because sufferers,
mostly smokers, are perceived to be responsible for their own
illness. Lung cancer causes 22% of all cancer deaths yet attracts
3% of total research cash while breast cancer accounts for 8%
of cancer deaths but attracts 18% of research money.